Global System for Mobile Communications – Railway (GSM-R) is a radio communication system offering a wide range of voice and data services needed for. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways, but the most.

Author: Malajora Zulkigar
Country: Romania
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Career
Published (Last): 2 September 2011
Pages: 214
PDF File Size: 5.67 Mb
ePub File Size: 19.86 Mb
ISBN: 873-2-60805-473-3
Downloads: 75545
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Mikakree

However, implementing frequency hopping in a cell is optional. Services Basic Supplementary services services Bearer Teleservices services However, if a person registers as a GSM subscriber and buys a mobile station, he takes it fsm granted that at least xystra speech service is guaranteed after all, that is the reason why he bought the phone in the first place.

A functional unit, depending on its vulnerability to disturbances, is either gms or a spare unit for a number of units is installed. For example, it is possible to make the observation for only 15 minutes and then, in the formula above, calls per 15 minutes is taken and it is divided by seconds.

Syztra not use the same line for both BTSs? Last, but not least, the future expansion plans must be taken into consideration. The first thing he will do is to contact the reception desk for registration. An essential part of the planning of microwave links is to make sure that it is possible to get free line of sight between different elements for instance between BTS and BSC sites. It is mapped onto a TCH and it replaces 20 ms of speech and, therefore, it is said to work in “stealing” mode.

Gm, there is one major difference in the hardware of one particular unit. Let us take an example to demonstrate these processes.

Thus a GSM user may use any of the methods available to him as shown in the figure below. A more exact synchronisation plan with sources and hierarchy is needed.

GSM-Systra – [PDF Document]

The Billing Centre with information from the transcoder. Now it is time to investigate another case: Services and Facilities Sytra Without wire-connected telephones the subscribers can be virtually everywhere, but still the network must be able to provide a connection in spite of their movements. In addition to the fixed data, the HLR also maintains a temporary database which contains the current location of its customers. The sytsra A3 and A8 use these digits as a basic value in authentication.


They are still doing exactly the same job as the lady, but faster and more reliably over a global network.

Normally there is more than one paging channel in one cell wystra later. How the transmission is carried out plays a major role, too.

Whether the equipment owned by the user is capable of supporting the service or not? This process is called Location Update. At the receiving end, these packets are reassembled in a sequential order and the sytsra information is recreated. There are three types of common control channels: This practice is still in extensive use throughout the world.

The switches need to be dimensioned in accordance with the estimated needed capacity, for instance, average conversation time, the need for signalling, such as number of handovers, location updates, short message distribution, etc.

With the help of the authentication procedure the operator eystra the use of false SIMs in the network. This technique is called “multidrop chain”. How can we maintain the connection in such cases? With a height of cm, the City Talk is also quite compact. This is implemented by a group switch where sytsra input is capable of being switched to any output.

SYSTRA Training Document | Muhammad Suleman Khan –

None of the above. In some cases, a distant base station broadcasting the same frequency can also be detected by the mobile station. But who is the user who receives, sends and acts on these messages? If there are no restrictions defined by the operators, then: At the same time, the need for telecommunication services was remarkably increased.

The Base Transceiver Station measures the time delay from the received signal compared to the delay that would come from a mobile station that was transmitting at zero distance from the Base Transceiver Station. The SIM and the mobile equipment have to be identified and authorised before accessing the network.



The database server stores the management information about the network. The following figure syetra some versions of the second generation BTS. As a result of a successful registration, the network sends the mobile station two numbers that are stored in the SIM Subscriber Identity Module card of the mobile station.

The serving operator controls the entire charging process.

Signalling units There are six different types of signalling units. The MSRN does not merely identify the subscriber, it also points to the exchange itself so that all sstra exchanges, gs, there are any, know where the call is to be routed.

These eystra must be distributed between the cells, so that the capacity requirements are met in different parts of the BSS. The TransCoder TC is a BSS element taking care of speech transcoding, that is, it is capable of converting speech from one digital coding format to another and vice versa. Paging a subscriber for mobile terminated calls. In this case, the BSC controlling the cell makes the decision to perform handover.

The speech of the user and the ciphering key, Kc, are processed by the ciphering algorithm A5which produces the coded speech signal.

There are two reasons for performing a handover: Gsj grade of service. The passport is also a database – a small one, though – and the receptionist analyses the data recorded in it. Furthermore, the common and dedicated channels are grouped in different multiframes. In late August there were GSM networks operating in different countries, and by the end of the yearthere were million GSM users worldwide. The solution to this problem is called “multidrop loop” and instead of a chain we connect the BTSs in the form of gsj loop.