The Expedition to Tabuk, also known as the Expedition of Usra, was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD , AH 8. Ghazwa e Tabook in Urdu authored by Allama Muhammad Ahmad Bashmeel. Ghazwa Tabook book contains complete history of the last battle of the Holy.

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The Battle of Tabuk Arabic: As the Prophet s was heading toward Tabuk to fight Romans, some of the companions, specifically Munafiqun hypocritesrefused to join the army or tried to weaken the morale of the army.

Before the expedition, the Prophet s appointed Imam ‘Ali a as his successor in Medina in his absence. After a short tarriance of few days, the army of Islam came back to Medina from Tabuk without any actual confrontation with Romans. Some verses were revealed about Munafiqun exposing them and their secret intentions and plans.

Most of the works by early biographers contain accounts of the expedition of Tabuk. But these narrations differ on some important factors like the cause s this expedition. According to a famous account, the Prophet’s goal of this expedition was to counter the Romans’ military activities in those lands.

It’s been narrated that the Nabataeans who would travel to Medina to sell flour and oil, would also inform Muslims about the latest news of Syria ; this way, the Muslims of Medina were constantly aware of the situation in Syria. One day, a Nabataean merchant said that Heraclius, then the Roman king, had prepared a great army by convincing some Arab tribes like: Lakhm, Judham, Ghassan, and ‘Amila. Forefront troops had already camped in Balqa’, northern Tabuk; and the Roman king was in Homs. In other accounts, without mentioning this story, it’s only been reported that the Prophet s left Medina to fight Romans.

Al-Ya’qubi believes the aim of the Prophet s in this military expedition had ghwzwa to take the revenge for murdering Ja’far b. After the Prophet s revealed his intentions to fight Romans, some of the Sahaba his companionsspecially the Munfiqun the hypocrites refused to join the army or tried to weaken the morale of other soldiers. It can be assumed that the great emphasis on going to this military expedition had been more a tactic of the Prophet s to expose some of Munafiqun and the reality behind their activities in Medina, than a response to a Roman threat.

There are historical indications that may support this view, such as: Ubay forces against the Muslim Army and based on one account, an attempt on the Prophet’s life on his way back from Tabuk by some of Munafiqun.


Jaysh al-‘Usr the army of hardship. That is why the Prophet sunlike other military expeditions, ee explained his intentions and aims in order to get his people well-prepared. He first camped in Thanyyat al-Wida’ near Medina and then left toward Roman borders, to urdy north, in an army of more than thirty thousand soldiers. Before leaving Medina, the Prophet s appointed Imam ‘Ali a as his successor, or based on a gjazwa, as the guardian of his family in Medina. Munafiqun who had planned for riot, regarded the presence of Imam ‘Ali a in Medina as a major obstacle in their way; therefore they started their propaganda against him.

They said “the Prophet s is not pleased with ‘Ali, that is why he has left him in Medina”. The effect of such propaganda was to the point that in order to thwart it, ‘Ali a met the Prophet s in Jurfsomewhere near Median, and the Prophet s told him a phrase according to which, the kind of relation between the Prophet s and ‘Ali a is that of between Moses and Aaron, with the exception that there will not be any prophethood after the Prophet Muhammad gghazwa.

This narration, which later gained the title: Hadith al-Manzila the saying of the Positionhas been documented in traditional collections through numerous chains of transmission.

Also this Prophetic saying has been cited as one of the decisive proofs for the immediate succession of Imam ‘Ali after the Prophet s. Interestingly, this was against the activities of Munafiqun shortly after the Prophet s had left Medina for a long journey. After some days, the Muslim army reached Tabuk area and stayed there for twenty days. There, based on al-Waqidi’s report, it became clear ih the reports about Roman military expedition had not been correct.

URDU: Ghazwa-e-Tabook by Muhammad Ahmad Bashmeel

However, based on other accounts, the Roman king sent some envoys to the Prophet s whom were kindly welcomed by the Prophet s. Meanwhile, the Prophet s signed a peace treaty on the condition of receiving jizya from Ukaydir b. He accepted the excuses of those who had refused to join the Army and made istighfar request Allah’s forgiveness for them. However, he ordered Muslims cut their relations with three of them; who were forgiven after revelation of verses and of Sura al-Tawba.

Rabi’ and Hilal b. Umayya were under social and familial boycott. They were not hypocrites, even when the king of Ghassanid urdi them a letter to inform them about plans of Muslims’ oppositions about them, they became irritated.


Expedition to Tabuk – Wikipedia

They finally separated from each other and made repentance Tawba which was accepted by God after fifty days. On the way back to Medinasome tried to assassinate Prophet Muhammad s. God informed the Prophet s and he told Hudhayfa and ‘Ammar b.

Yasir to accompany him. The hypocrites who were hiding their faces tried to scare the camel of Prophet Muhammad sbut Hudhayfa confronted them and they ran away.

Then Prophet s revealed the names of those hypocrites to Hudhayfa and ‘Ammar b. Ghazwx asked Prophet Muhammad s to send someone to slay them, but Prophet s refused and said: When the camel of Prophet Muhammad s was lost on the way, some people satirically said, Prophet s who tell us about ‘Ilm al-ghaybis not aware of the location of his camel.

Muslims went there and found the camel. In another incident, When Muslim troops were resting, they saw a man from distance who was walking toward them. Prophet Muhammad uedu said: Then Prophet s said: The military expedition to Tabuk and its related verses mainly in Sura al-Tawba exposed the Munafiquntheir activities and subversive plans and had a great role in later spread of Islam through Arabian peninsula. Certainly Allah turned clemently to the Prophet and the Emigrants and the Helpers, who followed him in the hour of tabool, after the hearts of a part of them were about to swerve.

Then He turned clemently to them —indeed He is most kind and merciful to them— and to the three who were left behind. When the earth became narrow for them with [all] its expanse, and their own souls weighed heavily on them, and they knew that there was no refuge from Allah except in Him, then He turned clemently toward them so that they might be penitent.

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