Una de las facetas más interesantes de la ENDUTIH está en la revisión que se hace del uso de telecomunicaciones a nivel estatal. Una nación. Ghana Living Standards Survey / Comisión Federal de Telecomunicaciones, Estimate to December based on ENDUTIH survey. Refers to total. National Survey on Availability and Use of ICT in Households, ENDUTIH. International Telecommunications Union (ITU) () ITU World.

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In efforts to reduce the digital gap and promote competition in the ICT sector, Mexico’s mobile wholesale access network began operating in March see Availability and Ease of Access. Digital rights groups raised the alarm about newly approved changes to the Federal Copyright Law, which would allow courts to order precautionary measures against content suspected of copyright infringement see Blocking and Filtering.

Bots, trolls and fake accounts were active on social enrutih platforms in the run-up to presidential elections inspreading disinformation and propaganda to promote or attack certain candidates see Media, Diversity, and Content Manipulation. Despite revelations about Mexico’s use of digital spying technologies to target journalists, human rights lawyers, activists, and political figures, no significant advances were made to investigate these abuses see Surveillance, Privacy, and Anonymity.

Mexico remained one of the most dangerous countries for journalists, and at least four digital reporters were killed during the past year. Physical and technical violence frequently targeted digital media covering sensitive stories such as crime, corruption, and human rights violations see Intimidation and Violence and Technical Attacks.

While access has steadily improved, Mexico’s internet freedom environment declined due to prolific manipulation tactics that distorted online discussions ahead of the elections. 0212 telecommunications reform has induced some changes in Mexico’s ICT market by reducing barriers for foreign investment and slashing prices for telecommunication services.

The Red Compartida project began operating in Marchproviding a wholesale wireless broadband network that is expected to boost competition and expand coverage endutiih underserved areas. Nevertheless, Mexico still faces challenges in its quest to increase competition and reduce the digital gap between urban and rural populations.

While citizens continued to use digital tools to protest against impunity, corruption, and gender violence, online manipulation is widespread in Mexico’s digital sphere. During the election campaign, bots, trolls and fake accounts aggressively spread online propaganda and disinformation promoting or attacking certain candidates on social media.

Verification initiatives sought to debunk the deluge of disinformation, which included fake polls and fake voting instructions. High levels of violence against journalists continued to severely limit internet freedom. During this period, at least four digital reporters covering sensitive stories online were killed, and many more received death threats and intimidating messages online. Using the tense security situation and the war on drugs as justification, the government has increased its surveillance powers.

Despite a series of revelations about the misuse of digital spying technologies in the country, no significant progress has been made in investigating these abuses. Moreover, a recent study published by Citizen Lab in Endugih found that Pegasus spyware continued to operate in Mexico.

The implementation of the Telecommunications Law has brought tangible benefits for internet access in Mexico. A wholesale wireless network launched operations in Marchaiming to offer data capacity to other operators and expand coverage to underserved regions.

Nevertheless, concentration is still high and the real-world impact of these changes in some parts of the country remains to be seen, as the country still suffers from a wide digital divide between urban and rural communities. Five years after introducing reforms to reshape the telecommunications industry, Mexico has noted some tangible improvements in internet connectivity, quality of service, envutih prices. Telecommunications reforms promoted in sought to substantially reshape the telecommunications industry and increase access.

The reform package seeks to develop a wholesale wireless network Red Compartida and backbone network Red Troncal to improve quality, affordability, and coverage of telecommunication services across the country. While Mexico’s mobile penetration still lags behind other countries in the region, the numbers have increased.

Despite initiatives to increase connectivity, the digital divide between urban and enduttih regions in Mexico remained ensutih, 86 percent of the Inthe states of Baja California, Ciudad de Mexico, Morelos and Aguascalientes observed the highest scores of internet users in rural areas Such enduyih connectivity rates are also evident in the relatively small percentage of internet users with broadband access.

Although the number of Mexicans with fixed broadband subscriptions has increased over the past decade, growing from 2. While it is true that the number of users has increased, digital inclusion programs continued to face challenges rndutih reducing the digital divide. Ethnic and linguistic divides are also significant.

According to the latest records, 14 million indigenous people and farmers were disconnected. In Aprila court ruled in favor of TIC, instructing the regulator to reconsider the requirement. After obtaining its license inthe non-profit organization has been providing mobile phone and data services to more than 3, households in rural and indigenous communities for USD 2 per month.


There were no recorded activities or public incidents related to government-imposed restrictions on ICT connectivity during this coverage period. Article in the Telecommunications Law, however, authorizes the “appropriate authority” within the Mexican government to request the suspension of telephone service in order to “halt the commission of crimes. Although enduutih of the backbone infrastructure in Mexico is privately owned, the state-owned company Telecomm has taken on greater control of the infrastructure, after taking over fiber-optic infrastructure from the Federal Electricity Commission.

Mexico’s reforms have sought to improve the ICT market by reducing market dominance and barriers for investment. Under constitutional reforms to the telecommunications sector, companies that control more than 50 percent of the market areconsidered “preponderant” players and are subject to antitrust measures by the regulator.

By mid, companies had not yet changed their prices as a result of this decision. In Februarythe Supreme Court also ruled in favor of Televisa, ordering Enduith to revisit its finding that the company had “substantial power” in the pay-TV market. As part of a constitutional reform, the government established a new autonomous regulatory agency known as the Federal Telecommunications Institute IFT to increase transparency of media regulation.

However, IFT has received criticism for its role in reversing some antitrust measures, and for complying with the Supreme Court decision to revoke the declaration of Televisa as a dominant company See “ICT Market”. Init was also criticized for authorizing Telcel to exclusively exploit 60 MHz of the 2. Harassment and physical violence have encouraged a climate of self-censorship among journalists and online activists, although many continue to risk physical danger to write about crime and corruption.

While citizens continued to use digital tools to protest against impunity and corruption, online manipulation continued to proliferate, especially in the run-up to the presidential and congressional elections. No evidence has been documented that the ebdutih or other actors blocked or filtered internet any other ICT content.

Social networking sites and international blog-hosting services are available enxutih Mexico. Nevertheless, technical attacks against media outlets are increasing as a means to limit access to content See “Technical Attacks”.

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In Aprilthe Supreme Court of Justice declared blocking an entire website because of alleged copyright violations unconstitutional and considered it a disproportionate measure that violated freedom of expression. In Aprilhowever, digital rights groups raised the alarm about approved changes to the Federal Copyright Law, which would allow courts to order precautionary measures against content suspected of copyright infringement. Digital activists decried the impact of this change on freedom of expression online, as courts would be able to order measures such as censorship of online content or seizure of equipment without providing proof that copyright violations have taken place.

While the Mexican government does not systematically request the removal of online content from intermediaries, news sites, and hosting services, social media platforms and search engines recorded removal requests over the past year. Facebook removals between July and December included more than 2, pieces of content related to a video of a shooting at a school in Monterrey, and 14 items that had been reported for defamation.

Other reports pointed to users misusing the flagging system to report content on social media. In April, media outlet Aristegui Noticias denounced that while livestreaming the presidential debate and post-debate 22012 on their Facebook page, banners appeared warning about “possible graphic content” and “sexually suggestive or partial nudity,” which affected their reach and views on the platform.

Although there is no strong legislative framework on intermediary liability, existing legislation offers some protections from liability for ISPs in cases of copyright infringement. Organizations have also raised concerns about the risk of so-called “right to be forgotten” requests being used to censor sensitive 20122 in Mexico.

Online manipulation and disinformation campaigns have been a recurring phenomenon since the elections, and once again proliferated in the run-up to the presidential and congressional elections. The use of bots endurih manipulate online debates has also been documented in several studies.

During the election campaign, journalists and researchers documented how bots and “troll farms” were being used to spread online propaganda and disinformation to promote or attack certain candidates on social media.

UNdata | record view | Percentage of individuals using the Internet

As a result of these practices, public awareness about online manipulation and the spread of disinformation increased, spurring fact-checking initiatives such as Verificadowhich sought to counter these narratives by partnering with local and national media outlets. During four months inVerificado published more than notes and 50 videos to debunk false news.

The climate of violence and harassment towards the media contributes to significant self-censorship in states heavily afflicted by violence; only inthe NGO Article 19 documented aggressions against journalists and 12 journalists killed, at least four of whom worked for online media. Economic constraints influence the diversity of media in Mexico. Scarce funding and a lack of interest in online advertising create challenges for individuals and nonprofits seeking to establish sustainable online outlets in Mexico.

Reliance on public advertising renders independent media vulnerable to content manipulation or closure due to lack of funding, [ 58 ] although the former appears to be the more pernicious of the two trends. In Puebla, for example, independent media organizations say the state government uses a combination of state, municipal, and university advertising as a way to control the editorial independence of local media.


Enutih AprilCongress approved a “Social Communication Law” to regulate government expenses in advertising. Special rapporteurs of freedom of expression from the UN have asked legislators to reevaluate enduthi law and to consult with civil society organizations. Despite the challenges, however, financially independent digital media outlets are appearing in Mexico, enriching the media ecosystem with alternative agendas that support human rights and the right to information.

Articles and of the Telecommunications Law establish protections for net neutrality. However, net neutrality is a contentious issue due to commercial agreements that allow differentiated prices depending on the destination of internet connections. Digital media have continued to serve as an important forum for internet users in Encutih.

The social media landscape in Mexico is very dynamic. Mexico has around 83 million Facebook users, 9 percent more than in January Some 20 million users have Instagram.

Even in the face of cyberattacks, harassment, and physical violence, citizens make regular use of digital tools to raise awareness about human rights abuses related to violence in the country and to mobilize protests against gender violence, for example using the hashtag YoTambien MeTooMiPrimerAcoso MyFirstHarassment and SiMeMatan IfIAmMurdered. Increasingly, however, women who denounce abuses via online platforms face backlash in the form of threats or even physical violence See “Intimidation and Violence”.

In response to the lack of information and coordination, groups of citizens mobilized online via Verificado19S Verified19S to provide verified and updated information about shelter, food, equipment and other needs for victims.

Mexico continued to be one of the most violent environments in the world for online journalists and bloggers, and the government has used insecurity to justify increased surveillance.

Millennium Development Goals Information, Mexico

Despite a series of revelations about illegal surveillance practices in the country, no significant progress has been made toward investigating these abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice. Endhtih Mexican Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and privacy of personal communications.

A constitutional reform in established internet access as a human right and guaranteed net neutrality.

A Telecommunications Law was subsequently approved in Julybut in Maythe Supreme Court largely upheld controversial provisions that pose a risk to privacy see “Surveillance, Privacy, and Anonymity”. Although defamation was decriminalized at the federal level eneutihcriminal defamation statutes continue to exist at the state level. In Decemberthe Chamber of Deputies approved a reform to the federal civil code to include electronic media in articlewhich outlines what is considered to be “moral damage.

While some media denounced ehdutih as an open door to social media censorship, specialists contended that the changes endutiih the code will not impact freedom of expression, which is still protected by article and the constitution. A 212 Internal Security Law enacted in December formalizes the armed forces’ engagement in domestic security functions. Despite legislation intended to increase the security of journalists and human rights defenders, the government has had little success in deterring attacks on journalists, bloggers, and activists, in a country that ranks near the top in global surveys on impunity.

While there were no documented cases of individuals prosecuted or sanctioned by law enforcement agencies on charges related to accessing information on the internet, online reporters continued to risk harassment and arrest while covering demonstrations or political events.

In December for instance, the Attorney General’s Office of Mexico City reported that it had initiated an investigation after receiving a complaint from a journalist who was arbitrarily detained and beaten by police when he was trying to record an event with his cell phone camera. Lawsuits have also been filed in response to critical reports published online. In Februarya mayor filed a criminal complaint for “attacks against honor” against the digital outlet Contramuro.

Little progress has been made in thoroughly investigating illegal surveillance practices in the country, after a series of revelations exposed the abuse of digital spying technologies intended to investigate criminals.

Using the tense security situation and the war on drugs as justification, the government has continued to expand surveillance powers with little accountability and oversight. A new Internal Security Law notably enables the military to carry out intelligence activities by “any legal means possible,” raising further concerns about military intervention in communications and information gathering in an opaque legal environment see “Legal Environment”.

In AugustCitizen Lab and Mexican enduutih organizations had documented at least 21 cases of journalists, human rights lawyers, activists, and political figures being targeted with the spying software Pegasus.

Civil society and several international human rights organizations, as well as experts from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and United Nations, called on the government of Mexico to conduct an independent investigation into allegations of illegal spying.