Total Cronbach’s alpha was The BDD-YBOCS had excellent inter-rater ( intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = ; p < ) and intra-rater reliability. The BDD-YBOCS is an observer rated scale to assess the severity of BDD The COPS is a self-report scale designed to screen for symptoms of BDD in. body dysmorphic disorder scale notes. The body dysmorphic disorder scale ( BDD-YBOCS) was developed by Katharine Phillips and colleagues (details at the .

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Scores of 40 or above are strongly suggestive of a diagnosis of BDD.

The reason is that patients typically have multiple appearance concerns; even those with only one concern may develop new concerns over time or experience remission of bed concerns.

The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.

Diagnosis and Clinical Assessment in BDD – BDD

One of these studies was placebo-controlled Phillips et al. When hair tweezing, plucking, pulling, or other types of hair removal is intended bbdd improve perceived defects in the appearance of body or facial hair, BDD should be diagnosed rather than trichotillomania hair-pulling disorder. In the study population, the prevalence of BDD symptoms was Unlike major depressive disorder, BDD is characterized by prominent preoccupation and excessive compulsive repetitive behaviors.

Because our observational course study did not prospectively re-interview subjects at weekly intervals or administer treatment, we used other BDD samples to examine test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. If preoccupations and repetitive behaviors focus on appearance including symmetry concernsBDD should be diagnosed rather than OCD.

Examples include problems with emotional or physical intimacy, avoidance of friends or social situations, being late for social activities, or not dating. Inter- and intra-rater reliability analyses were performed. The questionnaire has 10 items and the range is 0 to Many individuals with BDD are additionally preoccupied with other body areas; the muscle dysmorphia specifier should still be used in such cases. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Items 6—10 assess BDD-related repetitive behaviors e. Subjects in the treatment studies met standard inclusion and exclusion criteria for medication efficacy studies. The area under the ROC curve was 0. We are not sure if the scale is that sensitive to change during treatment but this needs to be formally evaluated.

In the present study, 30 and 56 patients reported high scores more severe BDD symptoms on item 8 distress and item 11 insightrespectively, which are the factors that most strongly interfere with the global functioning of BDD patients. Thus, the 30 patients who participated in the pretest were not included in the statistical analysis. BDD is often misdiagnosed as another disorder. This criterion helps to differentiate the disorder BDD, which requires treatment, from more normal appearance concerns that typically do not need to be treated with medication or therapy.

A Multidimensional body image comparisons of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder and clinical controls: The level of subjective distress and psychosocial impairment associated with physical appearance may be the most important factor to be evaluated in cosmetic surgery patients.

Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Diagnosis and Clinical Assessment in BDD

A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: Scale scores range from If it is misdiagnosed, patients may not receive appropriate care or improve with treatment that is provided. Subjects were obtained from a prospective, observational study of the course of BDD, which is described in greater detail elsewhere e.


It is available to complete on this website. The muscle dysmorphia form of BDD is diagnosed if the individual is preoccupied with concerns that that his or her body build is too small or insufficiently muscular.

The relatively high correlation with the GAF is perhaps to be expected, given that BDD was the primary disorder for New York State Psychiatric Institute; They require that the patient has persistently refused to accept medical advice that there is no adequate physical cause for the perceived abnormality.

The consensus version was adequately adapted to the linguistic context and care was taken to preserve all essential characteristics of the original instrument. Validity Face validity evaluates whether the instrument appears to measure what it was designed to measure. The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale: Int J Med Inform. The first 3 items are based on the BDD diagnostic criteria and assess preoccupation, impairment of global functioning, and subjective distress, which are related to both excessive preoccupation and compulsive behaviors.

If the appearance preoccupations focus on being too fat or weighing too much, the clinician must determine that these concerns are not better explained by an eating disorder.

Mean scores ranged from 8 to